People’s Daily 人民日报: Scientists discover that “Niall” is the most fertile Irish male

…………So there was I relaxing, minding my own business –actually melting would be a more precise description (a boiling 30 + degrees Celsius here) — drinking a mug of Barry’s tea (one of my little China foibles), Goggling “Genghis Khan”, when I accidentally typed my own name into the search….. and up pops this article from The People’s Daily (人民日报), the principal mouth piece of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, dated January 2006… My namesake Niall of the Nine Hostages, according to the People’s Daily was the Genghis Khan of Ireland….. Ireland’s most fertile man…… so now you know !

Read on…..

“DUBLIN: Scientists in Ireland may have found the country’s most fertile male, with more than 3 million men worldwide among his offspring.

The scientists, from Trinity College Dublin, have discovered that as many as one in 12 Irish men could be descended from Niall of the Nine Hostages, a 5th-century (reigned 379–405) warlord who was head of the most powerful dynasty in ancient Ireland.

His genetic legacy is almost as impressive as Genghis Khan, the ancient emperor who conquered most of Asia in the 13th century and has nearly 16 million descendants, said Dan Bradley, who supervised the research.

“It’s another link between profligacy and power,” Bradley said. “We’re the first generation on the planet where if you are successful you don’t (always) have more children.”

The research was carried out by PhD student Laoise Moore, at the Smurfit Institute of Genetics at Trinity. Moore, testing the Y chromosome which is passed on from fathers to sons, examined DNA samples from 800 males across Ireland.

The results which have been published in the American Journal of Human Genetics showed the highest concentration of related males in northwest Ireland, where one in five males had the same Y chromosome.

Bradley said the results reminded the team of a similar study in central Asia, where scientists claimed they found 8 per cent of men with the same Y chromosome. Subsequent studies found they shared the same chromosome as the dynasty linked to Genghis Khan.

Surnames reveal secrets

“It made us wonder if there could be some sort of Genghis Khan effect in Ireland and the best candidate for it was Niall,” Bradley said.

His team then consulted with genealogical experts who provided them with a contemporary list of people with surnames that are genealogically linked to the last known relative of the “Ui Neill” dynasty, which literally means descendants of Niall.

The results showed the new group had the same chromosome as those in the original sample, proving a link between them and the Niall descendants.

“The frequency (of the Y chromosome) was significantly higher in that genealogical group than any other group we tested,” said Bradley, whose surname is also linked to the medieval warlord. Other modern surnames tracing their ancestry to Niall include Gallagher, Boyle, O’Donnell and O’Doherty.

For added proof, the scientists used special techniques to age the Y chromosome, according to how many mutations had occurred in the genetic material over time. The number of mutations was found to be in accordance with chromosomes that would date back to the last known living relative of Niall.

Niall reportedly had 12 sons, many of whom became powerful Irish kings themselves. But because he lived in the 5th century, there have been doubts the king who is said to have brought the country’s patron saint, Patrick, to Ireland even existed.

“Before I would have said that characters like Niall were almost mythological, like King Arthur, but this actually puts flesh on the bones,” Bradley said.

When international databases were checked, the chromosome also turned up in roughly 2 per cent of all male New Yorkers.”

Source: China Daily http://english.people.com.cn/200601/24/eng20060124_237825.html

“都柏林大学圣三一学院的科学家发现12个爱尔兰人中就有一个是“九个人质的尼尔”的子孙。尼尔是五世纪时的一名军阀,是古代爱尔兰最强大的王朝的首领。据监督这一研究的丹?布拉德利说,他的基因遗传  几乎与中国元太祖成吉思汗一样强大,一样给人留下深刻印象。成吉思汗留下了近1600万个子孙后代。布拉德利表示:“这是另一个放荡与权力联系在一起的例子。我们是在这个星球上取得成功又没有生育更多的孩子的第一代人。”

  这项研究是由圣三一学院的斯莫非特遗传学院的博士生拉奥伊斯?摩尔进行的,摩尔检测了爱尔兰各地800个男子的DNA样本,检测Y染色体,这种染色体只能由父亲传给儿子。摩尔的研究成果发表在美国的《人类遗传》杂志上,研究结果显示,有联系的男子最集中的地区是在爱尔兰西北部地区,那里每5个男子就有一个有着共同的染色体。

  布拉德利说,这一研究使人想起了在中亚的一个类似研究小组的成果,科学家在中亚地区发现8%的男子有着同样的Y染色体,后来的研究发现,他们都与成吉思汗有着一样的染色体,从而证明他们都是这个蒙古王的子孙后代。布拉德利说:“这让我们想到在爱尔兰是不是有着成吉思汗一样的影响,而最佳的人选当属尼尔。”

  爱尔兰的这个研究小组于是向遗传专家咨询,这些专家给他们提供了同代人的姓氏名单,这些姓氏都与“UiNeill”王朝有关,从理论上说,名单上的人都是尼尔留下的子孙后代。

  研究结果显示,新的群体与遗传专家提供的名单上的人有着相同的染色体,从而证明现在的人与他们有关,也是尼尔的后代。布拉德利的姓也与中世纪的尼尔有联系,他说:“在这个宗谱中,Y染色体的联系频率比其他任何我们研究的宗谱的联系要高得多。”除了布拉德利这个姓外,其他与尼尔有联系的爱尔兰现代人的姓包括加拉格尔、波义耳、奥丹尼尔和奥多赫蒂。

  为了找到更多的证据,科学家利用特别的技术测量Y染色体的时代,记录基因材料在这段时间里发生了多少突变。结果发现,突变的数量与已知的尼尔最近一位子孙的突变数量是一样的,他们的染色体相同。

  据称,尼尔有12个儿子,这些儿子中大部分又成为爱尔兰强大的国王。但由于他生活在5世纪,所以是否有国王存在还有疑问,据说当时的爱尔兰王把这个国家的守护神帕特里克带到了爱尔兰。布拉德利说:“以前我会说这些人与尼尔有关几乎是个神话,就像亚瑟王一样,但这的确是有科学根据的。

Niall Nine Hostages Ireland Genghis Khan Mongolia
King Niall of the Nine Hostages, Ireland’s greatest lover with 3 million descendants, the Irish Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan Mongolia Niall of the Nine Hostages Ireland
Genghis Khan, the world’s greatest lover with 16 million descendants, Mongolia’s King Niall of the Nine Hostages

What’s in a name: O’Reilly – The sociable race

O’Reilly, with its variants Riley and R (e) illy, comes from the Irish Ui Raghallaigh, “grandson of Raghallach” thought to be from ragh meaning “race” and ceallach meaning “sociable”. The family was part of the Connachta tribal grouping and the particular Raghallach, and Irish chieftain from whom the name is derived is said to have been a descendant of the O’Conor kings of Connacht. A great-grandson of Maomordha, he lived at the time of Brian Boru, High King of Ireland, and, like him, died at the Battle of Clontarf in 1014.

The O’Reillys were for centuries the dominant ruling family of the kingdom of East Breifne, and at their height controlled most of counties Cavan and Longford and large parts of county Meath, despite many attempts by their main rivals, the O’Rourkes, to make it otherwise.

The chiefs were inaugurated on the Hill of Shantramon (Seantoman or Shantoman) between Cavan and Ballyhaise, in Castleterra parish on the summit of which may still be seen the remains of a Pagan Druidical temple consisting of three huge stones standing upright and known as Fionn McCool’s fingers. In later times the O’Reillys were inaugurated on the Hill of Tullymongan, above the town of Cavan; and took the tribe name of Muintir Maolmordha or the People of Maolmordha, one of their celebrated chiefs. This name Maolmordha or Mulmora was Latinized “Milesius” and anglicised “Miles” or “Myles,” – a favourite personal name among the members of the clan.

The patron saint of the O’Reilly family was St. Maedoc.

The Right Hand Symbol, a symbolic representation of God the Father in the Middle Ages, was the principal symbol of the clan.

The primary place of residence and Castle was Ballyreilly (Baile Ui Raghallaigh)

Their religious zeal is evident from the following foundations that were endowed by them: Monastery of the Augustinian Canons Premontre (Trinity Island, Lough Oughter, County Cavan, founded by Cathal O’Reilly, Prince of Breifne, circ 1237); Franciscan Monastery, Cavan town, founded by Gilla Isa Ruadh O’Reilly, King of Breifne, in 1300; Franciscan Brothers, Third Order Conventual, founded in 1414 by William O’Reilly at Thacineling, County Leitrim; Inchamore Abbey, Lough Gowna, County Cavan; while abbots of the O’Reilly family ruled the Monastery of Canons Regular of St. Augustine, Kells, County Meath from 1423 to 1523.

They were also renowned in medieval Ireland for their involvement in trade; their success may be gauged by the fact the “reilly” was at one point a colloquial term for money in Ireland, for the O’Reillys were the only clan in Ireland known to have a money system, their own coinage, which encroached on the monetary system of the English Pale and of Britain before being banned in 1447. What use they made of their prosperity can only be conjectured, but the phrase “the life of Reilly” is suggestive. After the collapse of Gaelic power in the seventeenth century, large numbers emigrated to serve in the armies of France, while many joined Colonel Edmund O’Reilly’s regiments in Austrian and Spanish armies during the 1700s.

The connection with the original homeland is still strong, however; even today (O’) Reilly is the single most numerous surname in both Cavan and Longford. The return of the prefix has been spectacular. Less than 10% give their name as “O’Reilly” in 1890, but almost 60% in 1996. The O’Reilly name is extremely common (as is Wang in China, or Kim in Korea) and widespread throughout Ireland, ranked the 8th most common in 1890 and 11th in 1996.

Myles Maolmordha O’Reilly, better known as Myles “the Slasher” O’Reilly fought his great fight as the heroic defender on the Bridge of Finea in Co. Cavan in 1644 where he and a band of one hundred held out against a 1,000-strong Cromwellian army. O’Reilly is commemorated by a cross in the main street of Finea, a pretty village on the banks of the River Inny.

Count Alexander O’Reilly (1722-1794) was born in Baltrasna, Co. Meath.  Like so many of his “Wild Geese” generation, during the penal times he left Ireland and fight  Spanish army.  He became Governor of Madrid and Cadiz, and Captain-General of Andalucia. As a Field Marshal and Count, his later career took him to Cuba in 1769 to quell a rebellion. Many his of O’Reilly descendants are still to be found in Cuba. His name is recorded in one of Havana’s streets: Calle Orely.

The O’Reillys of Templemills, Celbridge, County Kildare: Pedigree

ME: Niall O’Reilly, son of Liam Sean O’Reilly, and Kathryn Byrne. (Byrne / O’Reilly Family Tree http://www.familyecho.com/?p=START&c=mpgxjfzsss&f=658075834244417881)

FATHER: Liam Sean O’Reilly, son of Dr. Michael William O’Reilly (http://wp.me/p15Yzr-R) I and Catherine Cooney, m. Kathryn O’Reilly, and had issue: Michael William III; Conor James; Niall Joseph.

A True Irish Patriot Dr. Michael William O'Reilly (11 December 1889 - 11 November 1971) - My father's fatherGRANDFATHER’S BROTHER: Stephen James, son of John O’Reilly II, m. Elizabeth O’Toole (whose family have a tradition of descent from the O’Tooles of Wicklow) and had issue: Cathal; Elizabeth (Lilly).GREAT GRANDFATHER: John O’Reilly II, son of John O’Reilly I and Anne Craddock; m. Mary Lyons, and had issue: John Joseph; Stephen James; Michael William I; Mary Anne (Molly).

GRANDFATHER’S SISTER: Mary Anne (Molly), daughter of John O’Reilly II, m. Richard Eyre and had issue: Mary Una; Roland; Finbarr Roche; Margaret Elizabeth; William Joseph.

GREAT GREAT GRANDFATHER: John O’Reilly I of Templemills, Celbridge, born circa 1828-1832, son of Thomas Reilly and Anna Lynch, m. Anne Craddick (Craddock), 11 Oct. 1858 (Register of Celbridge), and has issue: John O’Reilly II and Michael O’Reilly.

GRANDFATHER’S FATHER’S BROTHER: Michael O’Reilly, m. Alice Barrett, and had issue: Edward Clement, Johanna Mary, Padraig Gabriel, Michael William, Angela, Margaret, and James Joseph.

GREAT GREAT GREAT GRANDFATHER: Thomas Reilly II, of Templemills, who m. Anna Lynch, circa 1812-1828, son of Thomas Reilly I of Templemills.

GREAT GREAT GREAT GREAT GRANDFATHER: Thomas Reilly I of Templemills, born circa 1792 son of James O’Reilly of Templemills.

GREAT GREAT GREAT GREAT GREAT GRANDFATHER: James O’Reilly of Templemills, born in County Cavan circa 1762-1777 (descended from Colonel Myles “the Slasher” O’Reilly) m. (Anne Gorey?), circa 1792.

- By eamonreillydotcom
Myles ‘The Slasher’ O’Reilly looks over the village of Finea

As Colonel Myles died in 1644, there must be three or four generations missing between him and my GREAT GREAT GREAT GREAT GREAT GRANDFATHER James O’Reilly of Templemills.

Sons of the Slasher

The following is the pedigree of Colonel Myles O’Reilly, from Burke’s “Landed Gentry”, O’Hart’s “Irish Pedigrees, “The Dictionary of National Biography”, the Preface by O’Donovan to Carlton’s “Willie Reilly”, and the manuscript 23.D.9:-

Myles (Maelmordha) “the Slasher” O’Reilly m. Catherine O’Reilly and had issue: John, Philip, and Edmund.

From Myles “the Slasher” O’Reilly’s http://www.irishidentity.com/stories/myles.htm son John are descended Count Alexander O’Reilly of Spain (the hero of Algiers 1722) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alejandro_O’Reilly  and Count Andrew O’Reilly of Austria who died in 1833.

Hero of Algiers

From Myles “the Slasher” O’Reilly’s sons John, Philip, or Edmund, according to constant family tradition, is descended my GRANDFATHER Captain Michael William “M.W.” O’Reilly, I.R.A. 1916 (Commandant in P.H. Pearse’s division, holding the General Post Office during the Easter 1916 Rising against British rule in Ireland).

Alexander O’Reilly (Count Alexander de O’Reilly / Marshal Alejandro, Conde de O’Reilly)

Alexander O’Reilly was born in Baltrasna, Co. Meath in 1722.  Military tradition ran in the family; his grandfather John O’Reilly was a colonel in the army of King James II, whose regiment—‘O’Reilly’s Dragoons’—fought at the siege of Derry.

Colonel John O’Reilly died on 17 February 1716. His wife was Margaret O’Reilly of County Cavan and they had five children, Brian, Eugene, Myles, Cornelius and Thomas.

The latter Thomas O’Reilly, father of Alexander, married Rose MacDowell of County Roscommon. Their four children were James, Nicholas, Dominic and Alexander.

Thomas O’Reilly left Ireland with his family and settled in Zaragoza, Spain where Alexander O’Reilly was educated. Aged only eleven, Alexander O’Reilly joined the Spanish army as a cadet in the Regimento de Infanteria de Hibernia, or Hibernia Regiment, formed in 1705. He was promoted to Sub-Lieutenant in 1739 (he was 17 years old), the year that war broke out with Britain and Austria. His regiment was sent to Italy to confront the Austrians. He showed such outstanding bravery and ability in several battles that he was promoted to Infantry Lieutenant. In the Battle of Campo Santo he was badly injured and lay all night on the field with other wounded and dead. The following morning, about to be bayoneted by an Austrian soldier, he convinced him he was of a wealthy Spanish family and worth a ransom. He was taken before the Austrian commander, who, as luck would have it, was another Irishman called Browne (Austrian military leader and scion of the “Wild Geese”, Maximilian Ulysses, Reichsgraf von Browne, Baron de Camus and Mountany), who had O’Reilly’s wounds tended to, and returned him to the Spanish side, but with a permanent limp as a result of his wounds.

Peace was signed and Alexander O’Reilly returned to Spain, now third in command of the Irish brigade Regimento de Infanteria de Hibernia or Hibernia Regiment. He immediately petitioned the king for a temporary transfer to the Austrian army, no longer at war with Spain, but now with Frederick the Great of Prussia. The Prussian army was renowned for its advanced tactics of manoeuvre and attack, and O’Reilly’s proposal was to study these with the view to their incorporation in the Spanish army.

In 1757 he joined the Austrian army, and distinguished himself against the Prussians at Hochkirchen, in 1758. The following year he entered the French service and assisted at the Battle of Bergen (1759), and the taking of Minden and Corbach.

War having broken out between Spain and Portugal, he re-entered the Spanish service, was made a Lieutenant-General / Brigadier, and defeated the Portuguese before Chaves, in 1762.

After campaigning in the Spanish invasion of Portugal not only was Alexander O’Reilly / Alejandro O’Reilly viewed as a fighting soldier, but also as an expert in military strategy and his recommendations for the tactical restructuring of the Spanish armed forces were approved. He subsequently swore allegiance to Spain and rose to become a Brigadier General.

Alejandro O’Reilly stayed acting as Adjutant and second-in-command for the new Governor of Cuba Conde de Ricla. While in Havana (Havannah), Ricla and O’Reilly received the city back from the British forces that had besieged and occupied it at the end of the Seven Years’ War.

Alejandro O’Reilly analysed what had gone wrong with the defenses of Havannah during the successful British siege in 1762, and recommended sweeping reforms to completely reorganise the defense of the island, while also calling for the introduction of a new justice system, increasing agricultural production, with a guaranteed market in Spain, and beef production. His recommendations were quickly approved by the Spanish Crown.

In 1765 he saved the life of King Charles III (King Carlos III) in a popular tumult in Madrid and was awarded by being sent Alejandro O’Reilly to Puerto Rico to assess the state of the defenses of that colony. Alejandro O’Reilly, known today as the “father of the Puerto Rican militia,” took a very detailed census of the island and recommended numerous reforms, including the instilling of strict military discipline in the local troops. He insisted that the men serving the defense of the Spanish crown receive their pay regularly and directly, rather than indirectly from their commanding officers, an old practice that had led to abuses. Some of O’Reilly’s recommendations resulted in a massive 20-year program of building up the Castle of Old San World Heritage Site.

Returning to Cuba, Alejandro O’Reilly married into a prominent Cuban family. His wife, Dona Rosa de Las Casas, was the sister of Luis de Las Casas, who served as Governor of Cuba. Today there is a street in Old Havannah “Calle Orely”, which is still named for O’Reilly, marking the location where this he came ashore while the English were embarking to leave.

Captain General of Louisiana

Alejandro O’Reilly was appointed Governor and Captain-General of colonial Louisiana while in Spain in April 1769, with orders to put down the revolt in Louisiana, and re-establish order.

Arriving in New Orleans from Cuba in August 1769, O’Reilly took formal possession of Louisiana. O’Reilly then held trials and severely punished those French Creoles responsible for the expulsion of Spain’s first Governor Antonio de Ulloa from the colony.

He is still remembered in New Orleans as “‘Bloody’ O’Reilly” because he had six prominent rebel Frenchmen executed in October 1769.

Having crushed the ringleaders who had led the Rebellion of 1768, O’Reilly turned his attention on administratively getting Louisiana back on its feet, and stabilising the food supply.

O’Reilly reformed many French bureaucratic practices and his proclamations and rulings affected many aspects of life in Spanish Louisiana, including the ability of slaves to buy their freedom, and the ability for masters to more easily manumit slaves. He also banned the trade of Native American slaves.

He regularized the weights and measurements used in marketplaces, regulated doctors and surgeons, and improved public safety by funding bridge and levee maintenance.

The affront to the self-esteem of the Spanish Crown having been quickly dealt with, and good public order restored, O’Reilly efforts had firmly positioned Louisiana as a dependency of the military and political establishment in Cuba.

Return to Spain

Back in Spain after October 1770, the king honoured O’Reilly with the title ‘Conte’ O’Reilly. He resumed his duties as Inspector General of Infantry, and then was named Inspector-General of Infantry and Governor of Madrid, which gave him control of all civil and criminal administration.

In 1775, O’Reilly was given command of a major Spanish expedition to Algiers, and it is said that jealously amongst the Spanish officers resulted in the ill-fated attack which left 2,000 soldiers dead and thousands injured. Although this North African campaign was a national humiliation, Alejandro O’Reilly was still held in high esteem by the king, who in 1776 appointed him Captain General of Andalucía and Governor of Cadiz, the key port connecting Europe with the Americas. He was very much at home in the political ambience of the time that was enlightened absolutism, and tight control from the centre attempting to resolve old ills and reform introduce reform. When he resigned in 1786 most of the people he worked with in Andalucía were full of praise for his energetic and authoritarian character as well as his special talent for implementing change.

He died in Bonete, near Albacete, Spain, in 1794, aged 72, while on his way to take command of Spanish force in the Eastern Pyrenees that had been ordered to resist, on behalf of French royalists, invading French revolutionary forces, following the beheading of Louis XVI during the French Revolutionary wars.

Sources:

1). “The O’Reillys of Templemills, Celbridge and a pedigree from the old Irish manuscripts brought up to dat, with a note on the history of the clann Ui Raighilligh in general”

By E. O’H.

Published 1942 by Compiled and printed for M. W. O’Reilly Moorefield, Dundrum Co. Dublin Ireland.

Number of pages: 40

ID Numbers Open Library OL17247067M

Only 4 editions

2). Wikipedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexander_O%27Reilly