Tag Archives: Irish neutrality

Righting a wrong: No evidence that Kennedy-Skipton was a Japanese collaborator during the occupation of Hong Kong

It seems the impact of Derry-born Irishman George Stacey Kennedy-Skipton’s (c 1898-1982) working for the Japanese is exaggerated at best, considering his focus was on agricultural activity aimed at dealing with a rapidly escalating food crisis. Everything written so far points to him being the victim of a grudge on the part of Franklin Gimson (the Colonial Secretary of Hong Kong who was Kennedy-Skipton’s direct report), who had powerful enough friends to besmirch Kennedy-Skipton’s  reputation. Loyalty, or the lack of, regarding Colonial Office servants is the key issue here, not collaboration with the Japanese. Kennedy-Skipton (K-S) was the only Colonial Office cadet to avoid capture and who stayed in Japanese occupied Hong Kong

I would also add that many Irish Free State passport holders (including my uncle) working for the Colonial Office, trading houses, etc, joined the Hong Kong Volunteer Defence Corps (HKVDC) and defending the territory with distinction. Kennedy-Skipton’s neutrality didn’t go down at all well with volunteers who put their life on the line defending Hong Kong, while up on The Peak he was flying the Irish flag declaring his neutrality to the Japanese. As to why he was flying the flag, and who he was protecting in his house was unknown and at the time deemed irrelevant.

A reference in the POW diary written by my uncle “Barney”  John Bernard Patrick Byrne “Diary of War: Private John Bernard Patrick Byrne “Barney” (HKVDC #4732) – Irish Prisoner of the Japanese in Shamshuipo and Sendai (1941-1945)” (Source: https://nialljoreilly.wordpress.com/2012/12/07/niall-and-barney/) throws some light on the depth of feeling suffering POWs would have felt towards K-S and other ‘third nationals’, or neutrals.

Righting a wrong No real evidence that Kennedy-Skipton was a Japanese collaborator during the occupation of Hong Kong - The Blarney stone

The Blarney Stone: According to legend whoever kisses the Blarney Stone is gifted with eloquence and persuasiveness.

In it Barney refers to a trial of French traitors as giving “us Hong Kong men some ideas about a similar purge when we get back there. And we won’t have any shortage of candidate for the rope provided the local loyal Chinese haven’t forestalled us!”

A number of posts in Second World War related Hong Kong groups’ online recount the experiences of families who sheltered in his neutral house. None refer to him informing the Japanese. Far from it, he saved them from the Japanese.

What is curious are the secret files he claim to have discovered which hadn’t been destroyed. There is no evidence he informed the Japanese about the contents of these file. In fact, he went to extraordinary efforts to inform the British Government of their existence.

However, the receipt by the British government of the message relating such information would have been preceded by the Franklin Gimson / British Army Aid Group (BAAG) grapevine noting that one of their own had gone over to the Japs, and was therefore branded a collaborator…. which was pretty much the same label everyone who claimed neutrality and worked for the Japanese occupation government was tarnished with.

In conclusion, in my there is no evidence that K-S was a collaborator in any shape or form. He just chose to declare his Irish neutrality, at a time when he was working for the colonial government and most of the Irish, and his fellow colonial cadets living in Hong Kong were fighting for Hong Kong and subsequently imprisoned. As such he was effectively disowned.

I recall a conversation I had in the late 1990s with an eminent Hong Kong LEGCO legislator on the very sensitive subject of collaborators. Naturally given the depth of rage, anyone, irrespective of race and background, who had by hook or by crook avoided the hardship of the Japanese occupation, profited from the turmoil, or who had recently returned to Hong Kong from Macau to be part of and benefit from the Post War reconstruction effort would have been branded a traitor. In order to maintain law and order, and perhaps keep the degree of treachery under wraps, the colonial government would have taken a conscious decision to classify the wartime records of many collaborators.

And while mentioning by hook or by crook there is a question mark regarding whether or not Kennedy-Skipton actually carried an Irish Free State passport which would have been the basis for his Irish neutrality. He may not have held an Irish Free State passport.  At the time of the Irish Free State people living and born in the six counties of Northern Ireland, of which Derry was part, would not have Irish Citizenship. Probably he just exploited an opportunity to outfox the Japanese.

To the Japanese it didn’t matter if the Irish were from north or south Ireland, they still treated them as neutrals.  Kennedy-Skipton (K-S) January 1943 escape to China may well have coincided with the Japanese finally grasping the intricacies Ireland’s political boundaries.

Additional reading: http://gwulo.com/node/12900?page=1

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Filed under 1943, Hong Kong, Ireland, Second World War

Neutral Ireland and the Axis: Fact and fiction

Reading through letters and other papers maintained by my late parents I found a half sheet of paper which I believe was typed in 1945.  It looks authentic and I’m wondering who wrote / or spoke it. Given my interest in the https://nialljoreilly.wordpress.com/2012/12/07/niall-and-barney/ it’s highly probable my mother found it and left it for me to read…

“I would like to disclaim the many rumours about Ireland being a sort of espionage central for the Axis, According to the rumours, 4,000 Germans and Japanese were supposed to live in Ireland during the war. In reality there were three Japanese: the minister, his wife and secretary, and six Germans. The day we declared our absolute neutrality, the secret radio transmitters which were in the possession of the Japanese and German minister, were embarged by the Irish Government.

In relation to our population more voluntaries took part in the Allied Forces than from any other country [Note:* below], and likewise proportionally more Victory [Note: Victoria] Crosses were dealt out to Irishmen than to any other nation.

We are hoping for an invitation to the United Nations. Even if we are a small nation, we want to help build up the world again, and contribute to the world peace being secured and the banner of democracy being help high.”

Source: Unknown

A token used by German and Allied Forces internees during  the second world war, known as The Emergency, in the Curragh Military Internment Camp, Kildare, Ireland
*Over 50,000 Irishmen and women born in the Irish Free State joined the British forces during the Second World War. 
[Source: http://www.historyireland.com/volumes/volume6/issue1/features/?id=181] More than 5,000,  more then a 10th of the soldiers in the Irish Free State military left without permission to fight for the British forces. The returnees were branded traitors, and after the Japanese surrender in 1945, the Irish government drew up the “starvation order” list of  so-called deserters, banning them from tax-payer funded jobs. On May 7th 2013, 68 years after the end of the Second World War, the Irish Parliament, or Dail, passed a bill into law pardoning the men posthumously (only about 100 are still alive) and apologising to their families “removing any tarnish from their name or reputation” Note: wording of the Second World War Amnesty and Immunity Bill.  

“Had Germany successfully invaded Great Britain, Ireland was next on the list. These individuals made a substantial contribution to protect the sovereignty of this country”

[Source: Alan Shatter TD, Minister for Justice and Equality, Minister of Defence.]

* 8 Irish VCs were awarded in the Second World War

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Filed under 1945, History, Ireland, Japan